Research


90g is the first research-based, allergen-free endurance sports drink for athletes who push their bodies to perform at optimal levels.

To make this product, we set out with three main goals: 

  • To make a product grounded in current nutritional and sports-performance research 
  • For the product to be enjoyable as well as effective in replacing needed nutrients during hard racing and training efforts 
  • For this product to be 100% allergen-free

The following table shows the current research per hour for an ideal endurance sports drink. 

 

Who would benefit from using 90g?

90g is specifically designed as a sole source of fuel and fluid for endurance athletes performing continuous exercise greater than one hour.

Why doesn’t 90g contain protein?

The research on endurance athletes ingesting protein supplements (branched amino acids) during exercise have mixed results and predominantly do not show improved results in performance. [1- 4]

[1] Tarpey MD, Roberts JD, Kass LS, Tarpey RJ, Roberts MG. The ingestion of protein with a maltodextrin and fructose beverage on substrate utilisation and exercise performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 Dec;38(12):1245-53.

[2] Oosthuyse T, Carstens M, Millen AM. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2015 Jul;36(8):636-46.

[3] Gui Z, Sun F, Si G, Chen Y. Effect of protein and carbohydrate solutions on performance and cognitive function in female recreational runners. PLoS One. 2017 Oct 12;12(10):e0185982.

[4] Fink HH, Mikesky AE. (2015). Practical applications in sports nutrition. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Why do I need more calories per hour than I'm burning?

Below shows the estimated energy expenditure of a 135 pound individual performing different types of exercise. As you can see the 360 calories consumed through 90g is still considerably less than the energy expended through exercise. [1]

Female Athlete 
Running 10 min/mile 550 kcal/hr 
Running 6:30 min/mile 825 kcal/hr 
Bicycling vigorous/racing 660 kcal/hr 
Swimming freestyle vigorous 550 kcal/hr

[1] Dunford, M., & Doyle, J. A. (2015). Nutrition for sport and exercise. 3rd. ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Should I always use 90 grams of carbohydrate when I exercise?

Typically you will not need to ingest carbohydrates in activities lasting under 90 minutes. In exercise bouts of over 90 minutes it is important to start training your gut. Initially, you may not be able to tolerate more than 60-75 grams per hour. The table on the main page and on the back of the product gives a sample weekly plan to increase your intake up to 90 grams.

Why does 90g have a 0.8:1 fructose:glucose ratio?

Research to date shows an increase in carbohydrate utilization, absorption, and power output with ratios greater than 0.7:1 with the lowest GI discomfort (stomach fullness, abdominal cramping, and nausea) at a ratio of 0.8:1. [1-3]

[1] O'Brien WJ, Rowlands DS. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio in a 
carbohydrate-electrolyte solution differentially affects exogenous carbohydrate 
oxidation rate, gut comfort, and performance. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver 
Physiol. 2011 Jan;300(1):G181-9.

[2] O'Brien WJ, Stannard SR, Clarke JA, Rowlands DS. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio 
governs exogenous and other CHO oxidation and performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Sep;45(9):1814-24.

[3] Rowlands DS, Houltham S, Musa-Veloso K, Brown F, Paulionis L, Bailey D. 
Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical 
Review and Future Perspectives. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1561-76.

Isn’t 90g over the recommended 30-60g carbohydrate to the hour?

This recommendation is for single source carbohydrate solutions (glucose) as anything above 60 grams has showed delayed gastric emptying and increased abdominal distress. [1] In multisource carbohydrate solutions, absorption is significantly increased [2-5], one study even showed up to 55% more carbohydrate oxidation than single source carbohydrate solutions. [2]

[1]. Dunford, M., & Doyle, J. A. (2015). Nutrition for sport and exercise. 3rd. ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

[2] Roberts JD, Tarpey MD, Kass LS, Tarpey RJ, Roberts MG. Assessing a 
commercially available sports drink on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid delivery and sustained exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Mar 4;11(1):8.

[3] Jentjens RL, Moseley L, Waring RH, Harding LK, Jeukendrup AE. Oxidation of
combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise. J Appl Physiol 
(1985). 2004 Apr;96(4):1277-84.

[4] 4Jentjens RL, Underwood K, Achten J, Currell K, Mann CH, Jeukendrup AE. 
Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates are elevated after combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Mar;100(3):807-16.

[5] Rowlands DS, Houltham S, Musa-Veloso K, Brown F, Paulionis L, Bailey D. 
Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical 
Review and Future Perspectives. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1561-76.

Isn’t 90g over the 6-8% carbohydrate solution recommendation?

The original purpose of the 6-8% solution guideline was to prevent slowing of gastric emptying which leads to GI distress. Multiple studies prove that solutions with multiple carbohydrate sources (i.e. glucose and fructose) increase gastric emptying and allow much higher than a 8% carbohydrate solution without additional GI distress. [1-6] What does all this mean? Consuming a multisource carbohydrate solution allows you to absorb more energy for better performance. [3]

[1] Shi X, Summers RW, Schedl HP, Flanagan SW, Chang R, Gisolfi CV. Effects of carbohydrate type and concentration and solution osmolality on water absorption. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Dec;27(12):1607-15.

[2] Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):112-21.

[3] Roberts JD, Tarpey MD, Kass LS, Tarpey RJ, Roberts MG. Assessing a 
commercially available sports drink on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid delivery and sustained exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Mar 4;11(1):8.

[4] Jentjens RL, Moseley L, Waring RH, Harding LK, Jeukendrup AE. Oxidation of
combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise. J Appl Physiol 
(1985). 2004 Apr;96(4):1277-84.

[5] Jentjens RL, Underwood K, Achten J, Currell K, Mann CH, Jeukendrup AE. 
Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates are elevated after combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Mar;100(3):807-16.

[6] Rowlands DS, Houltham S, Musa-Veloso K, Brown F, Paulionis L, Bailey D. 
Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical 
Review and Future Perspectives. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1561-76.

What are the top 12 allergens?

90g is free from the following top 12 allergens: peanuts, tree nuts, dairy, soy, gluten, egg, fish, shellfish, corn, sesame, coconut and mustard.

Isn't citric acid and maltodextrin made from corn?

Finding corn-free ingredients for 90g was one of the biggest challenges in bringing this drink to the market. Almost all of the current endurance sports drinks use corn as a precursor for maltodextrin and citric acid. To get past this hurdle,  we chose to use tapioca maltodextrin. It breaks down exactly like corn maltodextrin but removes the allergy symptoms that come from corn. Citric acid is typically derived from corn but can be found from a variety of fruits and plants. Our citric acid is derived from the molasses of beets and sugar cane.